Cultures > Second Mariote Kingdom
Second Mariote Kingdom
Second Mariote Kingdom
c. 2500 BC–c. 2290 BC Empire akkad →
The second kingdom during the reign of Iblul-Il
Languages Mariote dialect
Historical era Bronze Age • Established c. 2500 BC • Disestablished c. 2290 BC
Today part of Syria Iraq
Around the beginning of the Early Dynastic period III (earlier than 2500 BC), Mari was rebuilt and populated again. The new city kept many of the first city exterior features, including the internal rampart and gate. Also kept, the outer circular embankment measuring 1.9 km in diameter, which was topped by a wall that is two meters thick, suitable for the protection of archers.
Statue of Ebih-Il. (25th century BC)
However, the internal structure was completely changed, the city was carefully planned; first to be built were the streets that descends from the elevated center into the gates, assuring the drainage of rain water.
At the heart of the city, a royal palace was built which also served as a temple. Four successive architectural levels from the second kingdom's palace have been unearthed (the oldest is designated P3, while the latest is P0), and the last two levels are dated to the Akkadian period. The first two levels were excavated, the findings includes a temple named Enceinte Sacrée,[note 2] which was the largest in the city but its unknown for whom it was dedicated. Also unearthed, a pillared throne room and a hall that have three double wood pillars leading to the temple.
Six more temples were discovered in the city, including the temple called the Massif Rouge (to whom it was dedicated is unknown), and temples dedicated for Ninni-Zaza, Ishtarat, Ishtar, Ninhursag and Shamash. All the temples were located in the center of the city except for the Ishtar temple, the area between the Enceinte Sacrée and the Massif Rouge is considered the administrative center of the high priest.
The second kingdom appears to be a powerful and prosperous political center, kings held the title of Lugal, and many are attested in the city, but the most important source is the letter of king Enna-Dagan c. 2350 BC,[note 3] which was sent to Irkab-Damu of Ebla,[note 4] and in it, the Mariote king mentions his predecessors and their military achievements. However, the reading of this letter is still problematic and many interpretations have been presented by scholars.