People > Ashur-Dan III

Ashur-Dan III

Background

Ashur-dan III was the king of Assyria between 772 BCE and 755 BCE and presided over a period of internal social and political strife. Ashur-dan III was the son of Adad-Nirari III and the brother of Shalmaneser IV. He succeeded his brother as king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 773 BCE however, he was never able to gain de-facto power of Assyria due to certain royal members of the palace court.

His leadership was limited by the influence of the commander of the military known as a turtanu named Shamshi-ilu who held considerable power within Assyria. Within a few years of his reign the civilization of Assyria was wrought with a deadly plague in 765 BCE and this caused Ashur-dan III to forgo the annual military campaign as per ancient custom and tradition. In 763 BCE following the strife a revolution broke out among the populace and this would last until 759 BCE when another deadly plague would strike Assyria.

Following all this political and social strife Ashur-Dan III was succeeded by his brother named Ashur-Nirari V in 755 BCE. One of the most important legacies of Ashur-Dan III is not his contributions towards Assyrian culture, architecture or customs but rather to our knowledge of the civilization as a whole. It is possible to astronomically date all of the reigns of the Assyrian kings that came before based on the recording of the Bur-Sagale eclipse during the reign of Ashur-Dan III. This is an extremely important find for archaeologists and lends a much better understanding to Assyrian history and its context in the global timeline.

Ashur-dan III was King of Assyria from 772 to 755 BC.[1] Ashur-dan III was the son of Adad-nirari III, and succeeded his brother Shalmaneser IV in 773 BC. Ashur-dan's reign was a difficult age for the Assyrian monarchy. The rulership was severely limited by the influence of court dignitaries, particularly that of Shamshi-ilu, who was the commander-in-chief of the army (turtanu) at that time. According to the eponym canon, in 765 BC, Assyria was hit by a plague, and in the following year, the king could not campaign (it was customary for the Assyrian king to lead a military expedition every year). In 763 BC, a revolt broke out, which lasted until 759 BC, when another plague struck the land. His reign and the reigns of preceding Assyrian kings have been astronomically dated based on the only verifiable reference to a solar eclipse in Assyrian chronicles, the eclipse of Bur Sagale. Ashur-dan was succeeded by another brother, Ashur-nirari V. Preceded by Shalmaneser IV King of Assyria 772–755 BC Succeeded by Ashur-nirari V See also[edit] Assyrian eclipse References[edit] Jump up ^ Boardman, John (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. III Part I: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-0521224963. Retrieved 19 October 2013.

Assyrian King List

King Name Years of Rule Kingdom
Eriba-Adad I 1380–1353 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-uballit I 1353–1318 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Enlil-nirari 1317–1308 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Arik-den-ili 1307–1296 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari I 1295–1264 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser I 1263–1234 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tukulti-Ninurta I 1233–1197 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nadin-apli 1196–1194 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari III 1193–1188 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Enlil-kudurri-usur 1187–1183 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ninurta-apal-Ekur 1182–1180 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-Dan I 1179-1133 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur 1333 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Mutakkil-nusku 1333 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-resh-ishi I 1133-1115 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser I 1115-1076 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Asharid-apal-Ekur 1076-1074 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-bel-kala 1074-1056 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Eriba-Adad II 1056-1054 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shamshi-Adad IV 1054-1050 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nasir-pal I 1050-1031 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser II 1031-1019 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari IV 1019-1013 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-rabi II 1013-972 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-resh-ishi II 972-967 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser II 967-935 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-Dan II 935-912 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari II 912-891 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tukulti-Ninurta II 891-884 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nasir-pal II 884-859 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser III 859-824 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shamshi-adad V 824-811 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shammu-ramat 811-808 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari III 811-783 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Shalmeneser IV 783-773 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-dan III 773-755 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari V 755-745 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser III 745-727 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser V 727-722 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sargon II 722–705 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sennacherib 705–681 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Esarhaddon 681–669 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashurbanipal 669–631 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-etli-ilani 631-627 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sin-shumu-lishir 626 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sin-shar-ishkun 627-612 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-uballit II 612-608 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire

Sources

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