People > Ashur-rabi II

Ashur-rabi II

Background

Aššur-rabi II, inscribed maš-šur-GAL-bi, "(the god) Aššur is great,"[1] was king of Assyria 1012–972 BC. Despite his lengthy reign (41 years), one of the longest of the Assyrian monarchs, his tenure seems to have been an unhappy one judging by the scanty and laconic references to his setbacks from later sources. Biography[edit] He was a younger son of the earlier Assyrian monarch, Aššurnaṣirpal I. He succeeded his nephew Aššur-nerari IV's brief six year rule, and if this succession was like earlier usurpations by uncles of their nephews, it would have been a violent affair. The Assyrian Kinglist[i 1][i 2][i 3] records his accession and genealogy but provides no further information. His construction of the Bit-nathi, part of the temple of Ištar in Nineveh, was recalled in a dedicatory clone of Aššur-nāṣir-apli II (883–859 BC) commemorating his own repair work.[i 4] Some Assyrian settlements on the Middle Euphrates were lost to the Arameans as they were able to cross the river and establish a network of autonomous but interrelated settlements that began to encroach on the Assyrian heartland.[2] Šulmānu-ašarēdu III recalled the loss of Ana-Aššur-utēr-aṣbat (Pitru, possibly Tell Aushariye) and Mutkinu, two towns close to Til Barsip, which had originally been taken and colonized by Tukultī-apil-Ešarra I around a hundred years earlier, in one of his inscriptions: "At the time of Aššur-rabi (II), king of Assyria, the king of Aram (Syria) took [two cities] by force—I restored these cities. I installed the Assyrians in their midst."[i 5] The king of Aram (šar4 KUR-a-ru-mu) is unlikely to have been Hadadezer of Zobah, in southern Syria, but a northern Aram in or near Ḫanigalbat.[3] His authority continued to stretch as far west as the Ḫārbūr river as recorded on the cylinder[i 6] of Bel-ereš, a šangû or governor of Šadikanni,[4] somewhat contradicting the picture of Assyrian retreat and decline painted elsewhere.[5] His era must have stretched from the reigns of his Babylonian contemporaries, Simbar-Šipak (1025–1008 BC) to Nabû-mukin-apli (978–943 BC), although there is no extant contemporary proof of contact which might help fix this chronology more precisely. The Synchronistic Kinglist[i 7] gives his contemporary as Širikti-šuqamuna, a king of Babylonia who reigned just 3 months ca. 985 BC. Severe distress and famine was recorded under Kaššu-nādin-aḫi (ca 1006–1004 BC), the midpoint in Aššur-rabi's reign, and this possibly points to the underlying cause of the Aramean migration.[6] He was followed on the throne by his son, the equally obscure Aššur-reši-išši II, who ruled for five years. Inscriptions[edit] Jump up ^ Khorsabad Kinglist, IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS 828, DS 32-54), iv 9. Jump up ^ Nassouhi Kinglist, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836), iv 23. Jump up ^ SDAS Kinglist, IM 60484, iv 9. Jump up ^ RIMA 2 A.0.101.58:3' and copy RIMA 2 A.0.I01.65:3'. Jump up ^ RIMA 3 A.0.102.2 ii 37. Jump up ^ RIMA 2 A.0.96.2001 clay cylinder. Jump up ^ Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c (KAV 216), iii 7. References[edit] Jump up ^ A. Fuchs (1998). "Aššur-rabi II". In K. Radner. The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 209. Jump up ^ Martin Sicker (2000). The Pre-Islamic Middle East. Praeger. p. 48. Jump up ^ Wayne T. Pitard (1987). Ancient Damascus: A Historical Study of the Syrian City-State from Earliest Times until Its Fall to the Assyrians in 732 B.C.E. Eisenbrauns. p. 91. Jump up ^ Stephen W. Holloway (1997). "Assyria and Babylonia in the Tenth Century". In Lowell K. Handy. The Age of Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of the Millennium. Brill. p. 2009. Jump up ^ Hartmut Kühne, ed. (2010). "Production and Consumption at Dūr-Katlimmu, A Survey of the Evidence". Dūr-Katlimmu 2008 and Beyond. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 69. Jump up ^ J. Neumann, S. Parpola (Jul 1987). "Climatic Change and the Eleventh-Tenth-Century Eclipse of Assyria and Babylonia". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 46 (3): 180. doi:10.1086/373244. Preceded by Ashur-nirari IV King of Assyria 1013–972 BC Succeeded by Ashur-resh-ishi II

Assyrian King List

King Name Years of Rule Kingdom
Eriba-Adad I 1380–1353 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-uballit I 1353–1318 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Enlil-nirari 1317–1308 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Arik-den-ili 1307–1296 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari I 1295–1264 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser I 1263–1234 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tukulti-Ninurta I 1233–1197 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nadin-apli 1196–1194 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari III 1193–1188 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Enlil-kudurri-usur 1187–1183 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ninurta-apal-Ekur 1182–1180 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-Dan I 1179-1133 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur 1333 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Mutakkil-nusku 1333 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-resh-ishi I 1133-1115 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser I 1115-1076 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Asharid-apal-Ekur 1076-1074 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-bel-kala 1074-1056 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Eriba-Adad II 1056-1054 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shamshi-Adad IV 1054-1050 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nasir-pal I 1050-1031 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser II 1031-1019 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari IV 1019-1013 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-rabi II 1013-972 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-resh-ishi II 972-967 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser II 967-935 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-Dan II 935-912 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari II 912-891 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tukulti-Ninurta II 891-884 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nasir-pal II 884-859 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser III 859-824 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shamshi-adad V 824-811 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shammu-ramat 811-808 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari III 811-783 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Shalmeneser IV 783-773 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-dan III 773-755 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari V 755-745 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser III 745-727 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser V 727-722 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sargon II 722–705 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sennacherib 705–681 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Esarhaddon 681–669 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashurbanipal 669–631 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-etli-ilani 631-627 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sin-shumu-lishir 626 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sin-shar-ishkun 627-612 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-uballit II 612-608 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire

Sources

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources