People > Lugal-Anne-Mundu

Lugal-Anne-Mundu

Background

Lugal-Anne-Mundu was a king of the Sumerian city-state Adab in the 25th century BC. According to the Sumerian King List he reigned for 90 years following the defeat of Meskiaj-nanna of Ur. It is believed that he started the first empire in recorded history however, there are not many authentic contemporary accounts of his reign and one famously attributed to him was copied from previous inscriptions.

His empire collapsed upon his death and the transfer of power resulted in a dynasty from Mari starting with Anbu. There is dispute among historians though and some argue that the third king in the dynasty line named Sharrumiter assumed control after the death of Lugal-Anne-Mundu.

was the most important king of the city-state Adab in Sumer. The Sumerian king list claims he reigned for 90 years, following the defeat of Meskiaj-nanna of Ur. There are few authentic contemporary inscriptions for Lugal-Anne-Mundu's reign; he is known mainly from a much later text, purporting to be copied from one of his inscriptions. His empire, perhaps the first in recorded history, collapsed upon his death. Following this, the king list indicates that the "kingship" (i.e. the Nippur-based hegemony) fell to a dynasty from Mari, beginning with Anbu; however, it has been suggested that more likely, only the last of these Mari kings, Sharrumiter, held the hegemony after Lugal-Anne-Mundu.[1] With the break-up of the Adab kingdom, other prominent cities appear to have concurrently regained their independence, including Lagash (Lugalanda), Akshak (which not long afterward won the kingship from Mari, perhaps under Puzur-Nirah), and Umma (whose king Lugal-zage-si eventually went on to seize his own empire throughout the Fertile Crescent).

Lugal-Anne-Mundu Inscription

According to the fragmentary inscription attributed to Lugal-Anne-Mundu, (but known only from two copies dated from the reigns of Abi-Eshuh and Ammi-Saduqa), he subjected the

"Four Quarters" of the world — i.e., the entire Fertile Crescent region, from the Mediterranean to the Zagros Mountains. His empire is said to have included the provinces of Elam, Marhashi, Gutium, Subartu, the "Cedar Mountain land" (Lebanon), Amurru or Martu, "Sutium" (?),[2] and the "Mountain of E-anna" (Uruk with its ziggurat?). According to the inscription, he "made the people of all the lands live in peace as in a meadow".

He also mentions having confronted a coalition of 13 rebel governors or chiefs, led by Migir-Enlil of Marhashi; all of their names are considered Semitic.[3] Arno Poebel published a preliminary translation of one of the fragments in 1909, although he was unable to make out the king's name, which he rendered as "Lugal[.....]ni-mungin".[4] Hans Gustav Güterbock published a more complete translation in 1934, but quickly dismissed the account as pseudepigraphic and largely fictional. However, some more recent Sumerologists, following Samuel Kramer, have been more willing to give it credence as possibly a late copy of an actual inscription of Lugal-Anne-Mundu.[5]
Preceded ByKing of SumerSucceeded By
Unknown King of UrAnbu of Mari
Preceded ByLugal of AdabSucceeded By
UnknownUnknownUnknown

Sumerian Kings

DynastyKingsDynastyKings
Ante-Diluvian KingsAlulim
Dumuzid
En-men-dur-ana
Ziusudra
3rd Dynasty of KishKubaba
1st Dynasty of KishEtana
Enmebaragesi
3rd Dynasty of UrukLugal-zage-si
1st Dynasty of UrukEnmerkar
Lugalbanda
Dumuzid
Gilgamesh
Dynasty of AkkadSargon the Great
Tashlultum
Enheduanna
Rimush
Manishtusu
Naram-Sin
Shar-Kali-Sharri
Dudu
Shu-turul
1st Dynasty of UrMeskalamdug
Mesannepada
Puabi
2nd Dynasty of LagashPuzer-Mama
Gudea
2nd Dynasty of UrukEnshakushanna5th Dynasty of UrukUtu-hegal
1st Dynasty of LagashUr-Nanshe
Eannatum
En-anna-tum I
Entemena
Urukagina
3rd dynasty of UrUr-Nammu
Shulgi
Amar-Sin
Shu-Sin
Ibbi-Sin
Dynasty of AdabLugal-Anne-Mundu

Sources

Jump up ^ "Kingdoms of Mesopotamia: Mari" at HistoryFiles Jump up ^ The precise identification of "Sutium" is unresolved, but it was apparently a Semitic-speaking region somewhere west of the desert, and probably near Amurru. It is rarely heard from again after this. Cf. Carleton, Buried Empires (1939) p. 235. Jump up ^ The names of the 13 rebel chiefs in the inscription (as given by Guterbock) are: Migir-enlil, ensi of Marhashi; Enlil-ezzu, ensi of [...]; SHESH-kel (?), ensi of Kel; Su-Anum, ensi of Kagalla (?); [...]-Ellum, ensi of Amdama; Ibi-mama, ensi of Ardama; Nurshu-eli, ensi of [...]; Adad-sharrum, ensi of [...]; Badganum, ensi of [...]; Zumurtanu, ensi of [...]; Rimshunu, ensi of [...]; Abi-han[ish?], ensi of [...]; and [...]-bi-maradda(?), ensi of [...]. Jump up ^ A. Poebel, Babylonian legal and business documents: from the time of the first dynasty of Babylon, chiefly from Nippur, 1909, pp. 123-4; cuneiform diagram on p. 281. Jump up ^ Samuel Kramer, The Sumerians, 51-52.

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources