People > Tiglath-Pileser I

Tiglath-Pileser I

Background

Tiglath-Pileser I was one of the most famous and successful of all the kings of Assyria. He reigned between 1115 BCE and 1077 BCE and began his rule during a time of great political and social strife. At this time a group of people known as the Mushki or the Mushku, also known as the Meschech of the Old Testament and possibly the Phrygians were invading Anatolia and was bringing great threat to the cultures of Mesopotamia.

The real threat of the invasion was the threatening of the major iron supply of Mesopotamia which was just beginning to be used widespread at the dawn of the Iron Age. The area of northern Mesopotamia was the only real rich source of iron in the region and thus was of major strategic value for any potential political entity that wanted to equip an army with the latest weaponry and defensive implements.

In addition to defending the civilization against the hordes he also authorized massive building projects all throughout the cities of Ashur, Nineveh, and many others. He built a great library that would later be developed into the Library of Ashurbanipal under the Neo-Assyrian Empire. It is also believed that Tiglath developed a great garden complex that would possibly inspire the later Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Despite his widespread success his achievements in territory and conquest did not last past the reign of Tiglath-Pileser I and his successors were unable to continue. Following his death the civilization of Assyria entered a period of decline.

Tiglath-pileser defeated 20,000 Mushki in the Assyrian province of Kummukh (Commagene). He also defeated the Nairi, who lived west of Lake Van, extending Assyrian control farther into Asia Minor than any of his predecessors had done. He subdued various seminomadic Aramaean tribes living along the routes to the Mediterranean and reached the Syrian coast, where the Phoenician trading cities paid him tribute. Egypt, closely linked by trade with the Syrian coast, made overtures of friendship. After 1100 Tiglath-pileser conquered northern Babylonia. Tiglath-Pileser I King of Assyria TiglathPileserI.png Rock relief of Tiglath-Pileser Reign 1114–1076 BC Predecessor Ashur-resh-ishi I Successor Asharid-apal-Ekur Died 1076 BC Akkadian Tukultī-apil-Ešarra Tiglath-Pileser I (/ˈtɪɡləθ paɪˈliːzər/;[1] from the Hebraic form[2] of Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Esharra") was a king of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian period (1114–1076 BC). According to Georges Roux, Tiglath-Pileser was "one of the two or three great Assyrian monarchs since the days of Shamshi-Adad I".[3] Under him, Assyria became the leading power of the Middle East, a position the kingdom largely maintained for the next five hundred years. He expanded Assyrian control into Anatolia and Syria, and to the shores of the Mediterranean.[4] From his surviving inscriptions, he seems to have carefully cultivated a fear of himself in his subjects and in his enemies alike. Contents [hide] 1 Campaigns 2 See also 3 References 4 External links Campaigns[edit] The son of Ashur-resh-ishi I, he ascended to the throne in 1115 BC, and became one of the greatest of Assyrian conquerors.[5] His first campaign was against the Mushku in 1112 B.C. who had occupied certain Assyrian districts in the Upper Euphrates; then he overran Commagene and eastern Cappadocia, and drove the Hittites from the Assyrian province of Subartu, northeast of Malatia. In a subsequent campaign, the Assyrian forces penetrated into the mountains south of Lake Van and then turned westward to receive the submission of Malatia. In his fifth year, Tiglath-Pileser attacked Comana in Cappadocia, and placed a record of his victories engraved on copper plates in a fortress he built to secure his Cilician conquests. The Aramaeans of northern Syria were the next targets of the Assyrian king, who made his way as far as the sources of the Tigris.[6] It is said from an Assyrian relief that he campaigned against the Arameans 28 times during his reign from 1115 to 1077 BC. The control of the high road to the Mediterranean was secured by the possession of the Hittite town of Pitru[7] at the junction between the Euphrates and Sajur; thence he proceeded to Gubal (Byblos), Sidon, and finally to Arvad where he embarked onto a ship to sail the Mediterranean, on which he killed a nahiru or "sea-horse" (which A. Leo Oppenheim translates as a narwhal) in the sea.[8] He was passionately fond of the chase and was also a great builder. The general view is that the restoration of the temple of the gods Ashur and Hadad at Assyrian capital of Assur was one of his initiatives.[9] The latter part of his reign seems to have been a period of retrenchment, as Aramaean tribesmen put pressure on his realm. He died in 1076 BC and was succeeded by his son Asharid-apal-Ekur. The later kings Ashur-bel-kala and Shamshi-Adad IV were also his sons. See also[edit] Ancient Near East portal Tiglath-Pileser II Tiglath-Pileser III References[edit] Jump up ^ In English, any of the following four pronunciations are used: /ˈtɪɡləθ paɪˈliːzər/ tig-ləth py-lee-zər, /ˈtɪɡləθ pᵻˈliːzər/ tig-ləth pə-lee-zər, /ˈtɪɡˌlæθ paɪˈliːzər/ tig-lath py-lee-zər, or /ˈtɪɡˌlæθ pᵻˈliːzər/ tig-lath pə-lee-zər. Jump up ^ Spelled as "תִּגְלַת פִּלְאֶסֶר" "Tiglath-Pileser" in the Book of Kings (2Kings 15:29) or as "תִּלְּגַת פִּלְנְאֶסֶר" "Tilgath-Pilneser" in the Book of Chronicles (2Chronicles 28:20). Jump up ^ Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. Third edition. Penguin Books, 1992 (paperback, ISBN 0-14-012523-X). Jump up ^ 'The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History', Dupuy & Dupuy, 1993, p. 9 Jump up ^ The encyclopædia britannica:a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 26, Edited by Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968 Jump up ^ The encyclopædia britannica:a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 26, Edited by Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968 Jump up ^ Bryce, Trevor. The Routledge Handbook of The People and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the fall of the Persians Empire, p.563 Jump up ^ The encyclopædia britannica:a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 26, Edited by Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968 Jump up ^ The encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, volume 26, edited by Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968. External links[edit] Inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I. Babylonian and Assyrian Literature. Project Gutemberg. Assyrian origins: discoveries at Ashur on the Tigris: antiquities in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Tiglath-Pileser I Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Preceded by Ashur-resh-ishi I King of Assyria 1115–1077 BCE Succeeded by Asharid-apal-Ekur

Assyrian King List

King Name Years of Rule Kingdom
Eriba-Adad I 1380–1353 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-uballit I 1353–1318 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Enlil-nirari 1317–1308 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Arik-den-ili 1307–1296 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari I 1295–1264 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser I 1263–1234 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tukulti-Ninurta I 1233–1197 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nadin-apli 1196–1194 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari III 1193–1188 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Enlil-kudurri-usur 1187–1183 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ninurta-apal-Ekur 1182–1180 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-Dan I 1179-1133 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur 1333 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Mutakkil-nusku 1333 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-resh-ishi I 1133-1115 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser I 1115-1076 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Asharid-apal-Ekur 1076-1074 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-bel-kala 1074-1056 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Eriba-Adad II 1056-1054 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shamshi-Adad IV 1054-1050 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nasir-pal I 1050-1031 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser II 1031-1019 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari IV 1019-1013 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-rabi II 1013-972 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-resh-ishi II 972-967 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser II 967-935 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-Dan II 935-912 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari II 912-891 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Tukulti-Ninurta II 891-884 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nasir-pal II 884-859 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser III 859-824 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shamshi-adad V 824-811 BCE Middle Assyrian Empire
Shammu-ramat 811-808 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Adad-nirari III 811-783 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Shalmeneser IV 783-773 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-dan III 773-755 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-nirari V 755-745 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Tiglath-Pileser III 745-727 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Shalmaneser V 727-722 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sargon II 722–705 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sennacherib 705–681 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Esarhaddon 681–669 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashurbanipal 669–631 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-etli-ilani 631-627 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sin-shumu-lishir 626 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Sin-shar-ishkun 627-612 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire
Ashur-uballit II 612-608 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire

Sources

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources