Warfare > Battle of Halule
Battle of Halule
Battle of Halule
Date 691 BC
Result Battle was indecisive
Commanders and leaders
Khumban-umena III Sennacherib
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Campaigns of the
Rise of Neo-Assyria Campaigns of Ashurnasirpal II (Suru) Campaigns of Shalmaneser III (Qarqar) Campaigns of Shamshi-Adad V (Dur-Papsukkal) Campaigns of Tiglath Pileser III (Gezer) War with Urartu Campaigns of Sargon II Campaigns of Sennacherib (Sennacherib's campaign in Judah, Azekah, Lachish, Jerusalem, Diyala River, Halule, 1st Babylon) Campaigns of Esarhaddon Conquest of Elam Campaigns of Ashurbanipal (Ulai, Susa, Ashdod) 2nd Babylon Arrapha Assur Nineveh Harran
The Battle of Halule took place in 691 BC between the Assyrian empire and the rebelling forces of the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Persians, Medes, Elamites and Aramaic tribes.
2 Rebellion forces
During the reign of King Sennacherib of Assyria, Babylonia was in a constant state of revolt. Mushezib-Marduk the Chaldean prince chosen as King of Babylon led the Babylonian populace in revolt against Assyria and King Sennacherib.
Acheamenes recruited a new army to help the Babylonians against the Assyrians, under the leadership of Mushezib-Marduk. As well as the Babylonians, the Aramaic tribes, the Chaldeans and King Khumban-umena III of the Elamites, and all the Zagros Iranians (Persia, Anzan, Ellipi, etc.) joined in rebellion against the Assyrians. The nucleus of the army consisted of Elamite, Median and Persian charioteers, infantry, and cavalrymen.
Sennacherib during his Babylonian war
The battle was indecisive, or at least both sides claimed the victory in their annals and all rulers remained on their thrones.
Mushezib-Marduk lost his ally when the Elamite king Humban-nimena suffered a stroke later that same year, an opportunity King Sennacherib quickly seized by attacking Babylon, and eventually capturing it after a nine-month siege. Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib. The Persians and Medes were then subjugated. There was further fighting between Elam and Assyria over the next 40 years until Elam was destroyed by Ashurbanipal.
^ Jump up to: a b http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/chaldeans-kaldu-west-semitic-tribes
Jump up ^ http://www.clio.fr/BIBLIOTHEQUE/l_elam_et_les_elamites.asp
Jump up ^ The Encyclopedia of World History
Battle of Halule
Year: 691 BC
Place: South of Babylon [ 32°29'20.62"N and 44°31'6.49"E]
Participants: Assyria ¤ Babylonia, Elam, Iranian Tribes & Chaldeans
Result: Pyrrhic victory for the allied forces
Consequence: A war against Elam that leads to the rising power of the Medes
Sennacherib, the King of Assyria had to deal with dangerous threats. The Chaldeans were historically friends with the Elamites, and they were usually allied. In 721 BC Merodach-Baladan sat on the Babylonian throne, and in 693 BC he allied with the Elamites against Assyria, but the Babylonian-Elamite army was defeated by Sennecherib at Nippur. Two years later, in 691 BC, a large coalition of forces led by Shuzubu (Mushezib-Marduk), a Chaldean, with a career of rebelling against Sennacherib. A couple of years prior to the battle, he had fled to Elam and later returned to Babylon, where the people of Babylon installed him as a king. This obviously made Sennacherib furious, because he saw him as a "robber" and a "runaway", and now he was sitting on a throne "for which he was not suited".
(Sennacherib fighting against the Babylonians in his chariot, wikipedia)
The Assyrians eventually meet the coalition, in what was to become, a very bloody and grim battle. The nucleus of the allied forces consisted of strong Iranian and Elamite charioteers, infantry and cavalry. Sennacherib entered the battle in his chariot wearing a mail shirt. According to Sennaherib the fierce battle was full of confusion with hors
es galloping everywhere, and the coalition forces seemed to be as strong as the Assyrians, until Sennacherib entered the battle in his chariot. When the Elamites and Babylonians saw Sennacherib, they started to rout. Consequently he created order out of chaos. There were many casualties on both sides. However the "heroic deeds" of Sennacherib and the victory of the Assyrians are disputed, due to the strong resemblance to the Assyrian Creation Epic.
Both sides claimed victory due to the fact that the battle was indecisive. However, the coalition forces won a Pyrrhic victory, and consequently could not take advantage of their success against the mighty Assyrian superpower.